Saturday, 6 August 2011






AUGUST 2009 ©


I, Tumwebaze Joel hereby declare that this report is my original work and has never been submitted in for any award of a degree in any institution of higher learning

Signed………………………….                                              Date…………………….

I declare that the information contained in this report is out of the above student’s effort under my supervision
Signed…………………………                                               Date …………………….

Dr. Yusuf Byaruhanga

I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to Save the Children Uganda (SCiU),
JOBS International in that this project wouldn’t have been completed without their financial support and Makerere University who facilitated the project (research). In the same way thank my fellow colleague in this project (Oduor Magdalene) for the pieces of advice encouragement, company and cooperation during the course of the project.
Further gratitude goes to my supervisor, Dr. Yusuf Byaruhanga for his persistent advice and guidance not forgetting Mr. Emmanuel, Mr. Sentongo and Madam Manda for their support and assistance during laboratory examination

Special thanks go to my parents, family and friends who have supported me in the past years

This report is dedicated to my Dad Mr. Lumbuye Steven Stephen and mum Mrs. Maria Lumbuye plus my six brothers and seven sisters






This report is about a student facilitated project on food technology transfer and value addition aimed at improving food security,farmers’ income  and  Micro-enterprise development in Nabiswera sub-county Nakasongola district..The project was carried out done  with Tulisanyuka-Kyangogolo marketing group. The project was a student led process of, in Nakasongola district. the project was carried out by Makerere university students in collaboration with JOBS international and its partners; Save the Children in Uganda (SCiU) and Makerere University

Rapid rural appraisal and participatory rural appraisal techniques were used to assess the needs and opportunities of Tulisanyuka-kyangogolo marketing group members, farmers training in Nutri flour production, micro-enterprise development, branding and marketing. Necessary information was gathered using community meetings, focus group discussions and individual interviews. Nutri flour was prototype was produced with assistance from students. Nutri flour was by then a new product on the Ugandan market with sensory attributes good enough to favorably meet consumer needs and preferences

Nutri flour has……………….. which are within the range specified by east African standards 60:2000 for flours. It has microbial load of……. For total plate count, ..cfu/g for yeasts and moulds and ….cfu/g for coliform

A micro-enterprise based on the Nutri flour was established together with other products including baghia, cassava crisps, peanut butter. Currently the micro enterprise is generating enough income but the success building from team work and patience.

“Food security, at the individual, household, national, regional and global levels is achieved when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life( FAO. 2002. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001. Rome).Food security is built on three pillars:                                                                                                                                   Food availability: sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent basis.                                                               Food access: having sufficient resources to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet                                            .Food use: appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation.

Approximately 2.15 million people remain moderately to highly food insecure in northeastern, northern, and eastern Uganda. Of this total, about 1.95 million people in northern and northeastern districts currently receive food assistance through the World Food Program’s (WFP) Protracted Relief and Recovery Program (PRRO). Increased rebel activity in that DRC’s north Kivu region, has led to an influx of approximately 10,500 refugees into western and southwestern Uganda since mid October. However, a tenuous cease fire in DRC has prevented massive inflows of refugees, who are currently able to rely on personal networks to meet their immediate needs. As a result, assistance is being prioritized to Karamoja region, northeastern Uganda, where food insecurity has deteriorated substantially due to failed 2008 harvests, high food prices, poor livestock terms of trade, civil insecurity, poor access to basic services, HIV infection, gender inequality and poor road access that hampers commercial trade and humanitarian deliveries.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ugandan economy, accounting for about 86 percent of the country’s labour force and about 47 percent of the GDP. In 1995, it accounted for about 85 percent of the country’s total merchandise exports - traditional export crops (coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco) contributing 73 percent and non-traditional crops (simsim and cereals - maize in particular) about 12 percent.
According to 2002 census an estimate of 67.1% of the Nakasongola population depends on subsistence farming. Those engaged in other activities like fishing, charcoal burning are 3.2%.Generally,the household incomes is very low especially in the rural areas where the majority live. (Nakasongola district local government strategic year plan 2007-2012).
Poverty can be defined as where a person can not meet the basics of life like food, clothing and
shelter. The poor people in Nakasongola women, HIV/AIDS infected persons, crop farmers who
produce mainly for consumption, the children who depends on parents and worse for the
orphans; the orphanhood rate is 12.9%.(Nakasongola district local government strategic year plan 2007-2012).

Problem statement

Research objectives

Overall objective
To develop a food based microenterprise hence increasing farmers income  and food security for Tulisanyuka  marketing group and to determine the nutritional and microbiological quality of Nutri – flour produced by the group

Specific objective
To identify the crops grown in Nabiswera sub county that can be transformed in potential products
To establish a food based micro-enterprise from the crops grown in Nabiswera sub county
To determine the proximate and microbial composition of the Nutri - flour.

History of nakasongola district
In 1987, the commission of inquiry into the local government system recognized that Nakasongola town was too far away from the administrative center of Luwero district to be administered directly from there. Nakasongola suffered from relative neglect due to the distance from the then district headquarters. This became the basis for the creation of Nakasongola District in 1997 and started operation on 1st July 1997.

Geographical location; Nakasongola District is bordered by Apac District to the north, Masindi District to the west, Luwero District to the south and Kayunga District to the east. The district covers 4,909 square kilometerss (1,895 sq mi) of which 4.6% is permanent wetland (225.8km2) and land covers an area of 4683.2km2 The district comprises three counties, namely: Kyabujingo County (Kakooge, Kalongo and Kalungi subcounties), Buluuli County (Lwampanga, Wabinyonyi subcounties and Nakasongola Town Council), Budyebo County (Nakitoma, Nabiswera and Lwabiyata subcounties).The district lies in the east Africa time zone (UTC+3) Nakasongola district’s geographical Coordinates are: 01°20′N 32°30′E / 1.333°N 32.5°E / 1.333; 32.5.

Population;                                                                                                                                                                 The 2002 national census estimated the population of the district at 125,300 people, of whom 62,312 (49.7%) were females and 62,985 (50.3%) were males. The growth rate of the population in Uganda has averaged 3.2% during the first decade of the 2000s. Given those statistics, it is estimated that the population of Nakasongola District in 2009, is approximately 156,200 (UBOS, 2002). See table below:
Nakasongola district population trends
Estimated population

Source; Nakasongola district local government
Socio- economic structure
Nakasongola District is dominated by the indigenous Bantu known as Balulli. They speak Lululi whose dialect is similar to that of Runyoro, Runyala, Lukenyi and Lugweri. Baluli live harmoniously with other tribes including Karamojong, Baganda, Langi, Bakenyi, Bateso to mention but a few. English is spoken in the major urban areas.
According to 2002 census an estimate of 67.1% of the population depends on subsistence farming. Those engaged in other activities like fishing, charcoal burning are 3.2%. Small scale trade mainly of retail constitutes an important source of livelihood to the people. Electricity is only in Nabiswera, Kakooge sub-counties  and in Nakasongola town council. Generally, the households’ income is very low especially in the rural areas where the majority live. Poverty can be defined as where a person cannot meet the basics of life like food, clothing and shelter. The poor people in Nakasongola are women, HIV/AIDS infected persons, crop farmers who produce mainly for consumption, the children who depend on parents and worse for the orphans; the orphan hood rate is 12.9%.                                                                                                                                                         As analysed in the 2002 Census Report, the poverty levels in Nakasongola are very high. The 12.9% orphan rate means that many orphans are poor and it is manifested in the lack of income, poor dwelling facilities, amongst others. Some micro finance institutions such as FINCA, VEDCO, and SOMED have tried to extend some financial support to boost family income. Some NGOs have also given income projects to support the vulnerable. In
Nakasongola, the culture of saving is low partly because of lack of profitable ventures for investment, inefficient banking services to stimulate savings, amongst others. Over 40% of the youth are school drop outs with little or no skills for self-sustenance. There is not any vocational training institution thus the youth are exposed early to vulnerable situations. The few volunteer caregivers are not motivated to support the orphans and vulnerable children. Therefore, there is a need to avert this situation. (Nakasongola district local government strategic year plan 2007-2012).                                                                                                                                                               The district has no hospital and majority of the people are referred to one health centre (iv), 3 private/NGO dispensaries, 14 Government dispensaries (II) and others referred to Kiwooko in Luwero district.(Nakasongola district local government  integrated strategic plan  2007-2012). Based on the health management system from the DMO’s office, 2005/2006, malaria was the highest killer disease followed by acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, skin diseases, and intestinal wounds, among others. Community members have been sensitized on prevention and control of malaria through meetings, and radio talk shows and film shows. Mass mosquito net treatment, intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) of pregnant women. IHBMF strategy has been implemented
The HIV infection or positivity rate between 2001 and 2005 basing on VCT data stands at 15.7%. The female’s positivity stood at 17.3% and that of men at 14%. HIV \ AIDS prevalence is lowest among pro-secondary, highest among none and primary level. There are also cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the district especially along the lake shores.
Leprosy is also a common disease in the district. Under sanitation, the latrine coverage now stands at 68%. The following are some of the interventions by government and some of the NGOs like Save the Children, AMREF, World Vision, Concern World Wide etc.

Education services; According to 2002 Population Census, the literacy rate was 71%. The male literacy rate was 75.0% while that of females stood at 66.1%, for those above ten years of age. The district has 144 government aided primary schools, 29 community aided primary schools, 15 private licensed primary schools. There are few classroom structures which are at a ratio 1:66 living a gap of 575 and some of these classes are not equipped with enough furniture and adequate Scholastic materials. The district has only 1047 teachers and requires more 1241 teachers. Most of the schools have their management committees who help in the management of the UPE programme. Currently, the district receives grants for USE and UPE to help in the running of the schools. These funds are not enough and also irregular. The district has also partnered with world vision who provide partial scholastic materials, sensitise teachers in health and hygiene, construct pit latrines and staff houses. Save the Children has set up learning centres. For secondary schools, the district has over 15 schools, 3 are government, 5 private and 7 community.

Topography and Geology
Nakasongola is generally a flat area adulating between 3800ft above sea level. Much of the low lying areas are drained by seasonal streams into lake Kyoga in the North, which has tributaries to river Sezibwa in the East, river Lugogo in the West and South and river Kafu  in the North West.(Nakasongola district local government strategic year plan 2007-2012)
The District is mainly covered by Bululi soil catena, and the Lwampanga catena in the low lying areas and valleys.

Vegetation, Climate and food security
Vegetation type is mainly an open deciduous savannah woodland with short grasses .Dominant tree species include cumbersome ssp, Terminala, Acacia.
Nakasongola receives rainfall ranging from 500-1000mm per annum. There are two rain seasons. The main seasons occur in March/April-June/July and October to November/December (UBOS, 2002). The rainfall patterns are not favourable for agriculture. The temperature ranges between 25°C –35°C. The major food crops include sweet potatoes, cassava, maize, millet, sorghum, bananas, yams, beans, greens, peas, only to mention but a few. To supplement crop farming, small scale animal husbandry is also practiced for example, livestock farming and poultry. Fishing and the traditional hunting are also supplements to crop farming. 60% of the house hold depends mainly on subsistence farming (2002 Census).

Transport network The district is connected by a tarmac road to Masindi and Luwero District. The feeder-road network however is inadequate. Traveling within the district is a problem as means of transport are hard to get. This greatly affects transportation of agricultural produce within the city. Once products reach the tarmac road however, it finds a ready market both in the neighboring districts of Luwero and Masindi and as far as far away as Kampala. The road network in the district is still poor, with most of the areas being served by murram roads where transport may be very difficult during rainy days. However the marrun roads are graded and passable in dry seasons (Nakasongola District Planning Unit, 2008).

Participatory rural appraisal
Is an approach which aims at incorporating knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of their development projects and programmes.  The main purpose of participatory techniques is to enable development practitioners, government officials, and local people to work together to plan context appropriate programs. In contrast to structured surveys and questionnaires, PRA works primarily with qualitative data. To ensure that information is valid and reliable, PRA teams follow the rule of thumb that at least three sources must be consulted or techniques must be used to investigate the same topics.
The roots of PRA techniques can be traced to the activist adult education methods of Paulo Freire and the study clubs of the Antigonish Movement. In this view, an actively involved and empowered local population is essential to successful rural community development. Robert Chambers, a key exponent of PRA, argues that the approach owes much to "the Freirian theme, that poor and exploited people can and should be enabled to analyze their own reality
Hundreds of participatory techniques and tools have been described in a variety of books and newsletters, or taught at training courses around the world. These techniques can be divided into four categories:
  • Group dynamics, e.g. learning contracts, role reversals, feedback sessions
  • Sampling, e.g. transect walks, wealth ranking, social mapping
  • Interviewing, e.g. focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, triangulation
  • Visualization e.g. venn diagrams, matrix scoring, timelines
To ensure that people are not excluded from participation, these techniques avoid writing wherever possible, relying instead on the tools of oral communication like pictures, symbols, physical objects and group memory. Efforts are made in many projects, however, to build a bridge to formal literacy; for example by teaching people how to sign their names or recognize their signatures
Its five central additional concepts are:
  • Empowerment. Knowledge is power. Knowledge arises from the process and results of the research that, through participation, come to be shared with and owned by local people. Thus the professional monopoly of information, used for planning and management decisions, is broken. New local confidence is generated, or reinforced, regarding the validity of their knowledge. "External" knowledge can be locally assimilated.
  • Respect. The PRA process transforms the researchers into learners and listeners, respecting local intellectual and analytical capabilities. Researchers have to learn a new "style". Researchers must avoid at all costs an attitude of patronizing surprise that local people are so clever they can make their own bar charts etc. The "ooh-aah" school of PRA works against its own principles of empowerment and indicates shallow naivete on the part of the researcher. A good rule of thumb is that when you can really understand the local jokes, poetry and songs, then you may feel you are starting to understand the people's culture.
  • Localization. The extensive and creative use of local materials and representations encourages visual sharing and avoids imposing external representational conventions.
  • Enjoyment. PRA, well done, is, and should be, fun. The emphasis is no longer on "rapid" but on the process.
  • Inclusiveness. Enhanced sensitivity, through attention to process; include marginal and vulnerable groups, women, children, aged, and destitute.
Limitations and drawbacks
Because of the diversity of research questions which can possibly be posed in this project, there are few prescriptions other than that PRA, well done, is a promising way in. The term PRA itself can cause difficulties: PRA need not be rural, and sometimes is not even participatory, and is frequently used as a trendy label for standard RRA techniques. Despite its limitations, the concentrated power of formalization of community knowledge through participatory techniques can generate an impressive amount of information in a relatively short space of time, leaving time for more selective structured formal surveys where they are necessary and of value. If PRA becomes part of the global development agenda, there are risks of: "Hijacking". When this occurs, the PRA agenda is externally driven, and used to create legitimacy for projects, agencies and NGOs. Formalism. The "PRA hit team" arrives in a local community to "do a PRA". This abrupt and exploitative approach is all too common in project-based PRAs where there is a deadline to meet, or in scheduled training courses. Disappointment. Local expectations can easily be raised. If nothing tangible emerges, local communities may come to see the process as a transient external development phenomenon. Threats. The empowerment implications of PRA, and the power of its social analysis, can create threats to local vested interests, although less so than with PAR.
Rapid rural appraisal
Unfortunately, there is no generally accepted definition of RRA. RRA is more commonly described as a systematic but semi-structured activity out in the field by a multidisciplinary team and is designed to obtain new information and to formulate new hypotheses about rural life. A central characteristic of RRA is that its research teams are multidisciplinary.
Beyond that, the distinction between RRA and other research methodologies dependents upon its multidisciplinary approach and the particular combination of tools that in employs. A core concept of RRA is that research should be carried out not by individuals, but by a team comprised of members drawn from a variety of appropriate disciplines. Such teams are intended to be comprised of some members with relevant technical backgrounds and others with social science skills, including marketing research skills. In this way, it is thought that the varying perspectives of RRA research team members will provide a more balanced picture. The techniques of RRA include:
  • interview and question design techniques for individual, household and key informant interviews
  • methods of cross-checking information from different sources
  • sampling techniques that can be adapted to a particular objective
  • methods of obtaining quantitative data in a short time frame
  • group interview techniques, including focus-group interviewing
  • methods of direct observation at site level, and
  • use of secondary data sources.
The application of RRA has been quite wide as regards rural development, for example in health, nutrition, emergencies and disasters, non-formal education, agro forestry, natural resource assessment and sociology approaches. RRA has also been applied in agricultural marketing, although the marketing orientation of RRA studies has not been very well defined.
Thus the term rapid appraisal does not refer to a single technique but to a range of investigation procedures. Their chief characteristics are that they take only a short time to complete, tend to be relatively cheap to carry out and make use of more 'informal' data collection procedures. The techniques rely primarily on expert observation coupled with semi-structured interviewing of farmers, local leaders and officials. In substance the techniques of RRA have much in common with the social anthropologist's case study approach but are executed over a period of weeks, or at most months, rather than extending over several years. To date RRA has mainly been used in the field of rural development as a short cut method to be employed at the feasibility stage of project planning.
RRA is also useful for supporting decisions towards the improvement of agricultural marketing systems in developing countries. The role that Rapid Rural Marketing Appraisal (RRMA) can play in this broad sense of marketing research lies in the identification and prioritisation of marketing problems, and the evaluation of practical means of improving marketing functions, to meet the needs for expansion coupled with higher performance. The first step is to describe accurately and meaningfully the systems that exist. The next step is the evaluation of structures and performance, and the major forces responsible for changing their relationships. In a broader scope, research must analyse the changing strategic role of marketing in the development process.
The principles of rapid rural appraisals; The following are the principles of RRA agreed by its practitioners, in spite of the fact that there are different opinions and criteria concerning them. These are general principles of theory:
  • Optimising trade-offs: relating the costs of learning to the useful truth of information, having tradeoffs between quantity, relevance, accuracy and timeliness of the information acquired, as well as its actual use. Trade-offs in this sense are not merely mathematical ratios, but they also entail, in the context of cost-effectiveness, alertness, observation, imagination and the ability to pursue serendipity.
  • Offsetting biases: through introspection, it is necessary to identify cognitive biases and deliberately offset those biases. The recommendations are: to be relaxed and not rushed; listening not lecturing; probing instead of passing onto the next topic; being unimposing instead of imposing; and seeking out the poorer people and what concerns them.
  • Triangulating: using more than one technique/source of information to cross-check answers, that is comparing and complementing information from different sources or gathered in different ways. It also involves having team - multidisciplinary - members with the ability to approach the same piece of information or the same question from different perspectives.
  • Learning from and with the rural people: this means learning directly, on-site, and face-to-face, gaining from indigenous physical, technical, and social knowledge. Farmers' perceptions and understanding of resource situations and problems are important to learn and comprehend because solutions must be viable and acceptable in the local context, and because local inhabitants possess extensive knowledge about their resource setting.
  • Learning rapidly and progressively: this means the process of learning with conscious exploration, flexible use of methods, opportunism, improvisation, iteration, and cross-checking, not following a blueprint programme but adapting through the learning process. However, this could sound again as a non-systematic way of carrying out research.A fundamental principle is the making of contact with the rural population in a learning process. This aspect must be one of the focal points.

The cultivated peanut is the hard, ripe, nut like seed or bean of arachinis hypogaea L., an annual herbaceous vine of the pea family (leguminosae). Its indigenous to south America, having probably originated in Bolivia at the base of the eastern slopes of the Andes. (Fredric 2004). According to Fredric, the peanut is really a legume, like the pea and bean-not strictly a nut; its name predictated on the nut-like characteristics of the fruit. Due to popular usage rather than botanical considerations, its generally considered to be a ‘nut’. (Fredric 2004)
·         History of peanuts /Production of peanuts
Peanuts originated in brazil and were latter introduced to US by form Africa through slavery. (John wiley and sons 2007). Peanuts from south America are also called ground nuts. The name peanut is used almost exclusively in the united states while internationally the term groundnut is most commonly used. (Alfred, Thomas,stilweel 2007). According to the author they are not nuts and are very different from true nuts and coconuts in that they are produced by an annual, low growing, legume. There are many other types of similar groundnut bearing plants in Africa, but none is as widespread as is the peanut, which is produced on all continents and from tropical to temperate climates. (Alfred, Thomas,stilweel 2007)
 Peanut production in Uganda                                                                                                                                          In Uganda, peanut is the second most widely grown legume crop after beans and is grown all over the country but more so in the north (Mubiru, 2000). Its one of the export crops of Uganda contributing only 0.09% of the total earnings(FAO,1997). The crop is grown through out the country, production being intense in eastern Uganda. Total production of peanuts in Uganda is estimated at 148000 tonnes (USDA, 2004) as indicated in the table below.

Year Production  $ 1000 production metric tones
2000 72920 165000
2001 67605 154000
2002 70166 159000
2003 68378 155000
2004 56413 130000
2005 65256 148000
2006 64435 146000
2007 61139 139000
Source: FAOSTAT; FAO 2009

Groundnut is the second most widely grown legume in Uganda after common beans. It is thought to have been introduced by early traders and travelers after its introduction into the coast of East Africa by Portuguese explorers ( Nalyongo and Emeetai-Areke1986). It has been grown since 1862 ( Busolo- Bulafu   1990). It is a very popular crop especially in the eastern and northern regions of the country, where it has become part of the people’s culture ( Mahmoud et al 1991). It is mostly consumed locally. The seeds are consumed as roasted peanuts. The flour is used in preparing different dishes. Groundnut cake, after extracting oil, is used as animal feed. Most of the crop is grown by small-scale farmers.
·         Production environment  of groundnuts in uganda                                                                   Groundnut is grown mainly in the Eastern and Southern parts of the country. In the Eastern Uganda it is produced mainly on light, loose, and sandy loams but in the Southern Uganda it is also grown in clay loams. In the Southern region which has two rainy seasons, the crop is grown during both the rainy seasons, with most of the production during the first rainy season.  The first rain crop is harvested during the dry spell of July and the second crop is harvested in November- December dry season. The first rainy season which lasts from March to June has more reliable rain than the second rainy season lasting from August to September. Most of the crop is grown as inter-crop with maize and cassava. It is grown mainly as rainfed crop.   Although both bunchy and spreading types are grown, now there is a tendency to grow bunchy types because of early maturing habit and ease of cultivation ( Nalyongo and Emeetai-Areke1986). Some of the common varieties are Mani Pintar, Makulu Red, Bukene, Roxo etc.
·         Production constraints                                                                                                                                 The groundnut production in the country is constrained by various factors. As groundnut is grown mostly by small-scale farmers, the production is limited by low level of inputs. Production constraints include disease and pest incidence. The main diseases are rosette virus and early leaf spot. Groundnut rosette virus disease has been the most limiting factor of production ( Mahmoud et al 1991). Other diseases like bacterial wilt, rust, and stem rot are also diseases of importance. The major insect pests are aphids, thrips, grubs, and termites. Storage pests include Aspergillus, moths, flour beetles etc. Other constraints are  unreliable rainfall with recurring drought and lack of high yielding varieties ( Busolo-Bulafu 1990).
Nutritional composition of peanuts
Peanuts are an excellent food as they contain both a high amount of protein and provide a high energy content, in the form of oil with around 25% protein and 49% percent oil. They also contain a relatively low carbohydrate content, 16%, and significant fibre,( these figures are on a raw basis). They are relatively high in minerals and B-vitamins but low in other B-vitamins.(alferd, Thomas and stilwell 2007)
Nuts are loaded with good fats, low in saturated fat, and free of trans-fatty acids and cholesterol. They contain primarily monounsaturated fat. Peanuts are great sources of antioxidant vitamins( including selenium and vitamin E), as well as plant protein and fibre. Nuts are rich sources of several trace minerals such as copper, magnesium, selenium, chromium, zinc and potassium. Of course, as with all whole plant foods, nuts provide a unique complement of photochemicals (Vesanto, Brenda 2003)

Parameter Raw roasted
Moisture 5.6 1.8
Protein 26.0 26.2
Fat 47.5 48.7
Carbohydrates 18.6 20.6
Fibre 2.4 2.7
Energy(Kcal) 602 603
Ash 2.7 2.8

·         Source: salunkhe et al., 1992
Importance of groundnut  in Uganda
Peanuts are one of the worlds most beneficial crops. Every part of the plant has a use, but no part is as versatile as the peanut itself(Charles micucci 2002), which is eaten alone,added to many other foods, squeezed into peanut oil, and processed into a variety of products such as soap and explosives. According to Charles 2002, peanuts are used as food in the following ways; roasted or boiled peanuts, salted peanuts, chocolate covered peanuts, peanut butter, peanut ice cream, peanut brittle, cookies, peanut milk, salad dressing, peanut flour, imitation cheese, margarine. Peanuts can also be used in the industry as facial creams, paints, shampoo, lamp oil, soap, textile fibres,high protein livestock feeds, explosives, lubricating machines (Charles micucci 2002). The same author also specifies that peanut pods can be used to make fire logs,while the stems and leaflets can be used to make hay for livestock and green manure.
Peanut flour is becoming more popular as a highly digestible protein extender in bakery and confectionery products, especially for diet conscious consumers. During processing a high proportion of the oil and calories are removed, leaving a flour product that contains about 60% protein and less than 1%fat (Fredric 2004 )
Peanut oil is extracted from shelled and crushed peanuts through hydraulic pressing, expelled pressing,or solvent extraction(John wiley and sons 2007). According to the author, crude peanut oil is used as a flavoring agent, salad oil, and cooking oil. Refined bleached and deoderised peanut oil is used for cooking and in margarine and shortenings. The by-product called press cake is used for cattle feed along with tops of the plants after the pods are removed. The dried pods can be burned as fuel.
Peanut meal is a by-product of peanuts processed for oil. This residual cake is an important, concentrated, high protein livestock feed. Peanut hulls, a by-product of shelling peanuts serve as a roughage filler in livestock feed (Fredric 2004)

·         Health benefits 

Scientific research shows that eating nuts regularly is beneficial to health. For instance, four major epidemiological studies have shown that frequent nut consumption confers protection against coronary heart disease, with a level of risk reduction of up to 535 in those eating nuts five or more times a week compared with people eating nuts twice a week or less. According to Jennifer 2005 , the cardiovascular benefits of nuts have been attributed to their favourable fatty acid profile along with their vitamin E, antioxidants, folate, arginine and phytosterol content.

Peanuts and weight control. It sounds paradoxical, because they are calorie dense( 160-200 calories per oz), but research shows that people who eat nuts tend to weigh less than those who don’t eat nuts, possible explanations: nut eaters may follow a healthier diet(low in calories and saturated fat) than people who abstain from nuts, and those who are overweight may shun nuts because of the high calorie content. But other factors may come into play, nuts are quite filling because of their high protein and fibre content. In one study, subjects who snacked on nuts and peanut butter weren’t hungry after 2.5 hours( Lora, Lawrence cheskin and simeon 2007).
Peanut butter is a reasonable source of vitamins, minerals and other health protective food compounds; foe example peanut butter contains folate, VitaminE, magnesium and reverastrol, nutrients associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. Magnesium is also associated with a reduced risk of  adult-onset diabetes.peanut butter offers a small amount of zinc, a mineral important for healing and strengthening the immune system. Peanut butter contains one gram of fibre, fibre in food contributes to that feeling of fullness that can help dieters eat less without feeling hungry. Fibre also promotes regular bowl movements and helps reduce problems with constipation. By enjoying peanut butter on whole grain bread, you can contribute six to eight grams of fibre towards the recommended target of 20 to 35 grams of fibre per day(Rowing News Magazine 2004)
Four other large studies have since confirmed the benefits to the heart of peanut eating. In addition to the cardiac benefits of consuming nuts, the risk of having a stroke, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the risk of developing dementia and the risk of advanced mascular degeneration have all been found to be lowered by eating peanuts. Calculations suggest that daily nut eaters gain extra five to seven years of life free of coronary disease and that regular nut eating appears to increase longevity by about 2 years.(Thomas 2004)
Peanut is rich in proteins, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and fibres. Peanuts is a good source of Vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, folic acid, thiamine, niacin, and minerals such as copper, manganese, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, calcium, selenium, and zinc. Peanut has been linked to many health benefits. For example, it contains mostly heart health mono unsaturated fat, which has been shown to lower blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart diseases; fibre, which reduces the risk of some types of cancer, and controls blood sugar levels. Peanut is also a good source of folic acid, which helps prevent neural tube defects, and phytosterols which may offer protection from colon, prostate and breast cancer. Resveratrol, another naturally occurring phytochemical found in peanut and grape, is associated with reduced cardiovascular diseases and reduced risks (kalidas 2007)


Peanut allergy
Unfortunately, a small percentage of the population have an allergy to nuts. Health officials have reported that the incidence of nut allergies is increasing (Jennifer 2005). Severe reactions(anaphylaxis) can result in death if not treated immediately. Peanut allergies affect 2% 0f children in preschool age group and 60% of these children will also have an allergy to a nut other than peanuts. As a result of the increasing incidence of nut allergies some countries like Australia are prohibiting nuts in chilcare centres and primary schools. Its reported that the processes of maturation, roasting and curing, that increase flavor and shelf life of peanuts, all increase their allergenic properties. These processes are also likely to be important in modifying the allergenic properties of other nuts(scoutter 2004)
Attempted solutions to peanut allergy. Over the years several research teams have investigated and proposed a variety of ways to reduce or eliminate peanut allergy, including: thermal processing, immunotherapy and anti-IgE and –DNA vaccines. However heat processing technique failed because peanut allergens are heat stable and thus heating and cooking enhanced the allergenic properties of peanuts due to protein cross linking and other nonenzymatic biochemical reactions. In immune therapy allergic individuals are desensitized with a series of injections of peanut extracts, which can sometime result in increased tolerance. However, such tolerance is not usually maintained. To date immunotherapy is not recommended for peanut allergy because of the dangers involved during treatment including, severe anaphylactic reactions with reported deaths. The Anti-IgE Vaccine approach uses the recombinant protein technology to modify peanut proteins to prevent them from binding to IgE.(kalidas 2007)
·         Peanuts and Aflatoxin   
Freshly harvested peanuts contain 25-50% moisture content which must be reduced to 10% or less to avoid spoilage. The peanuts are usually left out to dry for two to three days on top of the windows after which they are collected. Peanuts are usually inspected for size and moisture at buying sites and for mold growth. Peanuts may contain aflatoxins a carcinogen . aflatoxin is a term applied to the toxic metabolities produced by some strains of the fungus, aspergillus flavus, a pathogen which may grow on numerous commodities in various parts of the world including peanuts. Aflatoxin contaminated peanuts are inedible and their use is limited to the production of peanut oil. Careful disease, nematode and soil insect control and proper drying after the harvest minimize the risk of aflatoxin. (Fredric 2004)
Finger millet(Eleusine coracana[L. ] Gaertn., Syn.: Cynosurus coracanus L., E. strica Roxb.) is also known by the following names: African millet, bird’s food,coracana, ragi in India, dagusha in Ethiopia and eritia, Wimbi in Swahili in East Africa, Bulo in Uganda(franc, martina 2007)
Decription, history and production

The name finger millet comes from the shape of the head grains, as it resembles the fingers of the hand(Elke 2007). The finger millet plant can grow up to about 1.3m, but it is commonly 1.0m tall. It is widely cultivated in eastern Africa around lake Victoria, southern Africa, and india. Finger millet requires moderate rainfall(500-1000mm), an intermediate altitude(500-2400m) and thrives under hot conditions as high as 350 c in well drained soils(Elke 2007).  The finger millet is widely adapted to soil characteristics, and it also tolerates some degree of alkalinity. It is a low-input crop cultivated in arid and poor countries, where the application of complete fallow, manure and corralling practices are strongly related to households endowment of resources especially with regard to animal production(Franc and Martina 2007). Finger millet achieves the highest yield among millets at 1000 to 1200 kg grain ha-1. The grains can be stored for years without pest damage(Franc and Martina 2007).
Finger millet is the most important small millet grown in eastern and southern Africa and it serves as a subsistence and food security crop that is especially important for its nutritive and cultural value. It is an important food crop in traditional low input cereal-based farming systems in Africa, and is of particular importance in upland areas of Eastern Africa, e.g. western Kenya, western and southern Tanzania, and Uganda, where it commands a high market price compared with other cereals (Holt 2000; Takan et al., 2002; Obilana et al., 2002). Finger Millet is thought to have originated from Uganda or neighbouring Ethiopian highlands (National Research Council, 1996; Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 2001; Bennetzen et al. 2003). Tremendous diversity in the crop exists in this region (Bennetzen et al., 2003). In eastern Africa, it is produced in lake region countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and also in Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia (Obilana, et al., 2002). It is an important cereal in the SADCC countries of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe(Gomez, 1993). It is also an important backup "famine food" as far south as Mozambique (National Research Council, 1996). Finger millet is suitable as a subsistence food crop because it can store safely for many years without insect damage due to its small seeds, hence fitting well in farmers' risk avoidance strategies in drought-prone regions of eastern Africa and south Asia (Holt, 2000).
Seed structure and composition
A spikelet has up to seven seeds. The seed of up to 1-2mm in diameter is globose, smooth or rugose with a depressed black helium one side slightly flattened. Seed colours are white orange brown, reddish brown, dark brown,purple to nearly black.the pericarp pemains distinct during development and becomes a paperly structure surrounding the seed. African highland types have a long spikelets, long glumes, short lemmasand grains enclosed within the florets. Afro Asiatic have short spikelets, short glumes short lemmas and the mature grains exposed outside the florets.( Derek,micheal and peter 2006 ).
Finger millet grain is essentially spherical in shape about 1-2mm diameter (Elke 2007). The 1000 grain-weight is approximately 2.5 g. Grain colours range from light brown to dark brown(Franc and martina 2007)while according toElke 2007  the grain can range from white to brown in colour. White-coloured grain is mostly preferred for porridge and the brown-colored varieties are used for traditional opaque beer brewing in southern Africa. Finger millet is unique in its grain characteristics as its utricle instead of a true caryopsis like other cereals. The utricle characteristics means that the pericarp is not completely fused with the testa(Elke 2007). This allows the pericarp to be removed by simply rubbing the dry grain or rubbing it after soaking in water. Finger millet has a 5 layered testa which can be red or purple. The colour is due to flavonoids and tannins(Elke 2007).the endosperm contains protein bodies of about 2μm in diameter and starch granules with a diameter varying from 8-21μm. The starch granules in finger millet are compound, with the individual granules being spherical, polygonal as well as rhobic shaped(Elke 2007).
Nutrients and anti-nutrients
Nutritional value of the seeds is as follows: 100g of edible part of seed (at 12% moisture content) contains 7.7g of protein, 1.5g of fat, 2.6g of ashes, 3.6g of crude fibre, 72.6 g of carbohydrates, 1406 KJ of energy value, 350mg of calcium, 3.9mg of Fee, 0.42mg of thiamine, 0.19mg of riboflavin, and 1.1mg of niacin. The high fibre content slows the rate of digestion, enabling consumers to work for long hours on a single meal of this millet(Franc and Martina 2007). Average in vitro digestibilies of raw and cooked finger millet of 71 and 87%, respectively, have been reported(Elke 2007). The in vitro digestibility of starch of the native and popped finger millet starch after 180 minutes hydrolysis have been measured as 66 and 74%, respectively(Elke 2007). Finger millet grain and malt are a good source of dietary fibre(Rao et al.,2004). The fat content is low leading to very good storability of the grains. In terms of the fatty acid composition, unusually almost half is oleic acid(Fernandez et al., 2003). Concerning minerals, finger millet is rich in calcium, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, selenium, and manganese(Fernandez et al., 2003).  Content of essential amino acids is the following (mg g-1): isoleucine 275, leucine 594, lysine 181, methionine 194, cystine 163, phynylalanine 325, tyrosine, threonine 263, tryptophan 191, and valine 413(Franc and Martina 2007). Because of the low glycemic response, finger millet can be considered in diets for people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes(Kumari and Sumathi,2002)
 With regard to anti-nutrients, the phytate and total oxalate content in finger millet is apparently quite high(0.5 and 0.03%, respectively) (Elke 2007). Tannins and trypsin inhibitors are also in finger millet. Fermentation significantly reduces the effect of these(Elke 2007). Although tannins can be considered as an anti-nutrient, they can have antioxidant properties(Siwela et al., 2007) the germination and sprouting of finger  millet seeds have significant effects on compound changes. The sprouted finger millet at 300c in well ventilated vessels decreases the anti-nutritional factors, with tannins and phytates decreasing to undetectable levels. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased threefold(Franc and Martina 2007). By the end of 48 hours of germination, there were decreases in viscisity and starch content accompanied by large increases in sugar content. Trypsin inhibitor activity significantly decrease, and significant changes also occurred to in vitro protein digestibility(Franc and Martina 2007).
Production of millet
While developing countries in Asia still produce the majority of the world's millets, Africa is becoming the hub of production (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 2001). Millet production in Africa has risen 25% since the early 1970s, and its place in domestic diets there is growing steadily. All other regions of the world, however, have registered declines in total output (largely due to changes in agricultural policy in China and the former USSR which resulted in dramatic reductions in areas sown to foxtail and proso millet, respectively), and even in Africa, per capita production has dropped notably. Finger millet accounts for 8 % of the area and 11 % of production of all millets in the world (Bennetzen et al., 2003). Finger millet is grown on over 4 million ha worldwide and it is a primary food for millions in dry lands of East and Central Africa, and Southern India. The crop is productive in a wide range of environments and growing conditions spanning from the Himalayas in Nepal, India, and throughout the middle-elevation areas of Eastern and Southern Africa (Holt, 2000). The wide adaptability of the crop can be attributed to its C4 nature.
Millet production trend in Uganda
Production $ 1000
Production in metric tones
Source: FAOSTAT; FAO 2009
Utilisation of finger millet
Finger millet is more nutritious than most other cereals and is recognized as being rich in minerals. Its valued adjunct to maize, sorghum and cassava, often being added to these before milling to flour or meal and for preparation of ugali and uji(east African thick and thin porridges respectively). Being rich in amylase enzymes, its frequently malted, hence an especially good malt source and adjunct for brewing and manufacture of weaning foods of high nutritional quality. eleusine which is the main protein fraction of finger millet has good amounts tryptophan, cysteine, methionine and total aromatic amino acids, which are important in human health and growthand are deficient in most cereals. Its very high in methionine content(2.7-3.7% of protein), is valuable especially to vegetarians and in areas where sulphur containing amino acids are the important protein deficiency. Finger millet is a unique and rich source of minerals, especially calcium(the highest component) at 11.7-14.6% of total ash which is 5-30 times higher than in most cereals. It also has high levels of potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, sodium and phosphorus. The high fibre content(about 3.6% crude fibre) of finger millet imparts a desired quality to the grain, as it slows the rate of digestion enabling consumers to work for long hours on a single meal of finger. Evidence has also shown that patients with diabetes with diabetes tolerate finger millet than rice, and that their blood urine sugar levels tend to be lower. Alow incidence of duodenal ulcers among finger millet eaters has been indicated. These nutritional qualities are strengthened by the additional presence of five important vitamins, the highest being VitaminA, with small quantities of Vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin and thiamin(Belton and John 2003)
Crop description
Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) is a herbaceous shrub up to 4m high with fingerlike leaves. It can develop into a small tree. It is widely grown in the tropics and sub tropics for its tuberous starch-filled roots. The mature cassava plant (12 months old) contains 6% leaves, 44% stem and 50% tubers. By products of root processing are 8% peel and 17% pomace. The tubers contain a glycoside, linamarin, concentrated in the skin(Fuller 2004).  Cassava is a perennial woody shrub with edible tuberous root; the height of a mature cassava plant usually ranges from 1-2m although some cultivars reach 4m (chittaranjan 2007). Branching height can be as low as 20cm, while some varieties never branch and as a result never flower; the leaves are simple, with between three and nine leaf lobes (usually odd numbers) arranged spirally around the stem (chittaranjan 2007).  The plant is monoecious; male flowers develop near the tip, while female flowers develop closer to the base of the inflorescence; some varieties flower frequently and regulary while others flowe rarely or not at all. Environmental factors such as photoperiod and temperature, influence flowering (chittaranjan 2007). Cassava is a good famine reserve plant because it can tolerate adverse conditions and its mature tubers may be left in the ground for 2years, although mature tubers, if lifted, can deteriorate within 24-74 hours (John and Catherine 2009). Cassava is generally propagated by stem cuttings, there by maintaining a genotype, however under natural conditions as well as in plant breeding, propagation by seed is common and farmers in Africa are known to occasionary use spontaneous seedlings for subsequent planting(chittaranjan 2007). Cassava plants propagated by stems cutting develop adventitious roots at the base of the cutting after one week while those propagated from seeds first develop a tap root system. The adventitious roots develop into a fibrous root system which within 30-60 days increase in diameter and become tuberous roots which swell with time due to starch accumulation(chittaranjan 2007).
Unprocessed cassava root
Classification History and  origin
Cassava (manihot esculenta cratz) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, which is characterized by lactiferous vessels composed of secretory cells.its relatives in the family are rubber trees, castor oil and ornamental plants. Cassava grows in the tropics and subtropics and was introduced into Africa and asia by Portuguese travelers in the 15th century (chittaranjan 2007). The centre of origin of cassava was first reported to be Central America, including venuela, Columbia, Guatemala, and southern mexico, due to the large no of varieties present there. Manihot species found in central American region are nly distantly related to cassava so Brazil  was later referred to as the major centre of origin and America as the minor centre (chittaranjan 2007). The word cassava comes from the Arawak word kasabi, manioc comes from maniot in the tupi language of coastal brazil(Clifford 2001)


Cassava production trends in Uganda

Production $1000
Production in metric tones

Source: FAOSTAT; FAO 2009

Nutritional composition of cassava
Cassava roots are a rich source of  carbohydrate. Most of the carbohydrate is present in form of starch that is 31% of fresh weight with smaller amounts of  freee sugars of less than 1% fresh weight. Cassava roots are low in protein(0.53%), although higher concentrations of 1.5% have been reported, oil at 0.17%. protein from other sources is therefore needed if cassava is to be part of a balanced diet (Hillocks, thresh and Anthony 2002 ).  The vitamin C content is 20-30mg/100g; carotenoids(pro-vitamin A) has been increase to 15μg/g(John and Catherine 2009)

Cassava utilization patterns vary considerably in different parts of the world. In Africa the majority of cassava produced(88%) is used for human food, with over 50% used in form of processed products. Animal feed and use for starch are only minor uses of the crop. In the Americans animal feed is far more important, accounting for approximately one third of consumption, and human food represents only 42% of production. Starch also represents an important use of cassava in south America. (Hillocks, thresh and Anthony 2002 )
Although the majority of data available for cassava relates to the roots, cassava leaves are important in some countries like DRC where leaves have a greater market value than roots. It has been estimated that the leaves account for about 68% of all vegetable output of the country (Hillocks, thresh and Anthony 2002). Both the fresh and dried cassava roots are fed to ruminants (Fuller 2004); Dried cassava roots can be used as a replacement for grain as an energy source in the rations of dairy cattle, fattening beef and lambs. Grains in poultry rations can be partly replaced by cassava chips or rootmeal, with supplementary methionine (0.2-0.3%) for layers. Sillage can be made from the whole cassava plant. Peel is rarely fed fresh, because of high levels of cynogenic glycosides(Fuller 2004)

Cassava products in Uganda
Cassava flour; is milled from sun dried pieces of cassava roots, usually referred to as chips. While fresh cassava perishes within five days, its flour can be stored for several months. Its usually consumed by mixing it in high proportions with millet flour(a relatively expensive product) to produce a more nutritious and tasty food staple(collision, Wanda, muganga, ferris 2003). Cleary consumers in Central Region are on average the least fond of cassava flour, a finding Cleary explained by the regions preference for matoke ( a food staple prepaired from bananas). However, urban areas within the region have seen significant immigration from war affected Northern Region, where cassava consumption is more common and the Central Region’s consumption is increasing. While cassava is often seen as a food security crop in central and Western Region, it’s an important part of eastern consumer’s regular diet.
Cassava flour consumers generally prefer a white, non odourless product that is produced from well dried cassava pieces. The main supply areas of dried cassava to Kampala are Apac in the North, and Kumi, Soroti and Pallisa in the east. Although Hoima, in the west supplies lower volumes, quality is generally higher (collision, Wanda, muganga, ferris 2003).
Fresh cassava description and trading; fresh cassava trading is dynamic and highly streamlined by comparison with dried cassava trading. Its driven by perishability of cassava roots, which necessitates swift movement from farm to the consumer, with a minimal number of transactions. Traders are forced to discount their prices heavily if the cassava reaches the market two or three days after harvest. After five days, the roots are un usable. The areas that supply the majority of Kampala’s fresh cassava are Hoima in the west, lira and Apac in the north, and Soroti and Pallisa in the east.

                                                           Local agents         

                          Travelling traders-
                               Urban market                                                                                                      

                           Commission agents-

The fresh cassava trading chain (collision, Wanda, Muganga, ferris 2003).

Cassava toxicity
The cassava tubers contain a glycoside, linamarin, concentrated in the skin which is hydrolysed by linamarinase, an enzyme also present in the plant, to release hydrocyanide(HCN) (Fuller2004). Cassava also contains an enzyme alpha hydroxynitrile lyase which catalyses the decomposition of acetone and hydrogen cyanide( Vetter, 2000). Linamarase is located in the cell wall, while glucosides are located inside vacuoles in the cytoplasm( Vetter, 2000, McMahon et al., 1995). Thus the enzymes and cynogenic glucosides are not in contact unless cassava tissue is disrupted   ( Vetter 2000). Concentration of cyanogenic glucosides is higher in the leaves than in the roots(victor  2002). Bruising the roots activates the enzyme(Fuller 2004). The HCN can be removed by heating, soaking or prolonged sun drying. Bitter varieties contain more than 0.02% HCN and require thorough processing before feeding. Most commercial varieties are sweet, with < 0.01% HCN, and can be used raw, slicing, soaking and drying removes much of the HCN, as does cooking(Fuller 2004)

History and production
Maize originated from southern and central America and was introduced into east Africa by the Portuguese back in the sixteenth century. Maize however never acquired high status in Uganda since according to the local population, it bore no comparison to matooke(the cooking banana) or millet, the stapple crop of the northern and southern part of the country respectively. These high status crops were the objects of many fables about their origin,etc and in many ways represented a cultural history. In contrast to this maize retained a connotation as an extremely introduced crop which was regarded as neither nice tasting nor satisfying. According to the professional traveler john rascoe who visted ugandain the early colonial period, maize cobs were eaten either between meals or as a relish after a meal and no one would call eating a few maize cobs a meal. Nevertheless during the second world war Ugandan maize production experienced a boom, as the whole of east Africa in these and the following years experienced a food shortagewhich led to the establishement of the east African cereals pool. The pool purcharsed maize and occasionally other cereals at controlled prices, and at times of scarcity the cereals could be purchased at negotiable prices. However the pool only lasted until 1952 partly because importation from overseas proved to be more economical.uganda was one of the major suppliers of the pool, and in the subsequent years the country had a booming productionwhich was used for example, to counteract a food shortage in Tanganyika. ( pernille 2000)

Maize production in Uganda is primarily on smaller holder production similar to the major part of agriculture production within the country. Maize is grown practically allover the country, but the major producing areas are first and foremost busoga(including the districts of jinja, kamuli and iganga), but also kasese, masaka and kapchorwa( pernille 2000)
Production trends in Uganda

Production $ 1000
Production in metric tones

Source: FAOSTAT; FAO 2009
Nutrition quality
Maize contains protein of low biological value(i.e. one that has very low values of lysine and tryptophan). It also lacks many special minerals and has negligible amounts of niacin, one of the B vitamins that is essential for human health. The niacin deficiency disease(pellagra) is common in populations whose diet is dependent on maize(especially where individuals don’t use alkaline treatments in their food preparations and who aren’t able to include other food sources in their diets. Traditional processes often involved use of wood ash  to make the pre cooked food alkaline. The alkaline soak releases the small amount of niacin in maize, and although it also reduces the overall available protein, the treatment increases the relative available lysine and tryptophan.        ( David Dendy and BogdanJ : 2001)

importance of maize
maize(zea mays l) is one of the three major cereal crops of worldwide economic contributes substancially to the total cereal grain production in the world and also occupies an important place in the world and trade as food, feed and an industrial crop. In the developed world maize is mostly used as a feed for livestock(78%) and only a small percentage as food(6%). In contrast to developing countries consume about 40% as food and the remaining 50% as feed . the remaining percentage is used in varied industrial uses and as seed.(friesen and palmer 2004)

maize is used in animal feed, for starch and oil production,for breakfast cereal foods, for snack foods such as popcorn and extruded snacks. Maize starch can be fermented into alcohol or hydrolised on a large scale to make glucose and corn cyrups(including high fructose syrups), which are used as sweeteners and thickeners. The global importance of maize and its products to the modern economy cant be overstressed.( David Dendy and BogdanJ : 2001)

Corn silk (Zea mays L.) refers to the stigmas of the maize female flowers. Historically,its have been used as a therapeutic remedy for various ailments such as the inflammation of theurinary bladder and prostate as well as treatment for irritation within the urinary system. To date,numerous commercially viable products prepared from corn silk are available (El-Ghorab et al.2007). Although not scientifically proven, rhetorically, corn silks have long been reported in ancient literatures to be able to assists with prostate problems, bed-wetting, carpel tunnel syndrome, edema and obesity.

Corn silk was also reported to be useful to treat urinary infections and cystitis. It is helpful for frequent urination caused by irritation of the bladder and urethral walls as well as for difficulty in passing urine, e.g. prostate disorders. It soothes and relaxes the lining of the urinary tubules and bladder, thus relieving irritation and improving urine excretion (Steenkamp 2003).
The biological activities of corn silk constituents are well cited in literatures. These includes antibiotic activity toward corn earworm by a flavone glycoside maysin (Maksimovic and Kovacevic 2003), attractant activity toward corn earworm (Guevara et al. 2000), inhibition of IgE formation by glycoproteins (Tsuneo et al. 1993), immune enhancement by nonstarch polysaccharides (Guevara et al. 2000), anticoagulant activity by neutrosugar/aminosugar derivatives, phytochemical and biological study (Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002), purification and characterization of an anticoagulant from corn silk (Sang-Kyu and Hye-Seon 2004), phytomedicines as a treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Steenkamp 2003), glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion (Velazquez et al. 2005) and volatiles inhibit cultures of Aspergillus flavus (Zeringue 2000). Other than these reported biological activities, some local species are used as tea, and they were powdered as food additive and flavorings agents in several regions of the world (Koedam 1986; Yesilada and Ezer 1989). There are indications that utilization and acceptance tendency towards medicinal herbs to give relief and treat human ailments are globally very positive although there are side effects. The interest toward elucidating the chemical composition of medicinal herb products is also growing as commercializing exploitation increases (Basgel and Erdemoglu 2006). Various information on the Zea mays hairs are cited in the literatures but sadly; there are lacunae especially in its ultra structural study using high-resolution electron microscopy. Thus attempt is now being made to utilize these sophisticated high resolution technology in an attempt to develop corn silks as viable natural products post structural, chemical and elemental characterization. The aim of the study is thus to elucidate the ultra structural elucidation and determining proximal composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of local Zea mays hairs.

Changes during processing
Common microorganisms found in composite flour
Sources of contamination
Foodborne illnesses associated with composite flour
Mycotoxins in groundnuts
Aflatoxins produced by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus are common contaminantants of peanuts and major threats to consumers particulary in sub sharan Africa. Aflatoxins  B1 and G1 are the most commonly produced in peanuts. These toxins are involved in several human diseases particulary liver cancer and growth defects in children. Aflatoxin interaction with hepatitis b and c virusresult in relatively high levels of hepatocellurat carcinoma  ( J.F leslie 2008 )Aflatoxin contamination is a  seriuous concrn given their hepatotoxic properties and their widespread occurrence during harvest, drying, storage, transit and distribution. Pre-harvest infection by A.flavus is the major cause of aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Its preventition is a complicated task that requires a series of intervention strategies to be merged with traditional farming practices. A.flavus infestation and aflatoxin contamination can be nitigated by combining; host plant resistance, soil amendments with lime, and organic supplements to enhance water holding capacity, plant vigour and seed health, timely harvesting and post harvest drying methods, the use of antagonistic bio controls such as trichoderma and pseudomonads and awereness compaighnsand training courses to disseminate technology to end users(J.F.leslie 2008)
Mycotoxins in millet
Mycotoxins in Cassava
Aflatoxins are lethal when consumed in large doses and fatalities have been reported in uganda and kenya
Mycotoxins in maize
Finonisins are mycotoxins produced by fusarium verticilloides formerly termed F.moniliform(selfert et al 2003) and fusarium proliferatum which among the fungi most commonly associated with maize. These toxins normally are synthesized before harvest od during early stages of drying and except under unusual conditions don’t increase during storage (fandohan et al 2005)
Stability of composite flour
3.1 Study area
The project was carried out in Nakasongola district, Nabiswera sub- county 7 km away from the Kampala- Gulu highway. The project was targeted to a community of rural farmers who were members of Tulisanyuka-kyangogolo marketing group which was formed earlier on by save the children in Uganda (SCiU)  in collaboration with Jobs international and extension workers providing agricultural advisory services. Tulisanyuka-kyangogolo marketing group comprised of 30 members with an average of 35 years of which the majority are female. The group specialized in the growing of maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, ground nuts, millet, mangoes and oranges. They also do raring of animals including cattle, goats and sheep.

Nabiswera sub-county

A map of Nabiswera sub- County showing the main agricultural fields and the area of operation (source ………….)

Student group formation and training
The student group comprised of two food science students (Tumwebaze Joel and Ssepuuya.G) and one information technology student (Odour Magdalene), whose purpose was to provide technical expertise in the areas of food processing and business micro enterprise development to the farmer group. the student team was to identify food products with a high potential for food processing and value addition in the area based on locally available food resources, as well as develop business and marketing plans to sell these products both at the local level as well as at Makerere University and Kampala at large.

Before going to the field the students group was trained for four days comprising of;
Day 1; we were trained in aspects of introduction to entrepreneurship development and business management, Small Business/Small Medium Enterprise & Qualities of an Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship Development & Business Management Cycle, Entrepreneurial Attitude & Risk Taking Mentality, Business Selection                                          Day 2;  we made group Presentations on Business Selection, trained in Market Survey, feasibility Study pre-Business Planning
Day 3 and 4; we were trained in aspects of; optimum usage of local resources, capital & credits; Production management; marketing; market linkage; process of cluster formation; objectives, Criterion of cluster; roles & Responsibilities of Cluster Committee & Members; Cluster Management; Characteristic/Criterion of Ideal Cluster; Benefit of Cluster
Formation of farmer groups; Tulisanyuka kyangogolo marketing group was founded in 2007 by save the children – Uganda in collaboration with Jobs Bangladesh and Makerere University. It is a partnership group that was started by a group of 30 farmers dedicated to improve human health through improving accessibility and shelf life of the various products. During that time they were being trained in other aspects like agriculture other than food value addition. The farmer groups were already organized to include the chair lady, secretary, marketing manager, transport officer, cashier etc.
The coupling of farmer groups to student groups was also random; it was done by save the children staff together with Mr. Byaruhanga. To each student group a farmer group was allocated and afterwards read out to us in presence of farmers enabling the students and farmers to link up
Initial field visits

An initial field visit by the student team was carried out prior to the commencement of the actual project the aim of which was to understand the demographic aspects, climate, types of agricultural produce, interventions carried out, and farmer’s expectations from the project. This visit was also intended to familiarize students with the area of study, to understand the activities of save the children and also interact with farmers in the area. On arrival the group first convened at save the children regional office in Nakasongola where students were briefed about the activities and code of conduct of Save the Children. The students also interacted with some of the workers of Save Children who gave them some insights about Nakasongola. The students were also warned about the prevalence of HIV AIDS in the district. The second visit was aimed at carrying out the needs and opportunity assessment of the farmers.

Needs and opportunity assessment
During the second visit information for the assessment was collected using participatory rural appraisal and rapid rural appraisal techniques. Also power of observation was used to assess the conditions of farmers
(Livelihoods) and foods available with a high potential for processing. Information was collected about farmers' awareness and perception of the huge post harvest losses they incur, low prices offered to their produce and the need to add value to their produce for better incomes and food security as well as searching for market. Also information concerning the different kinds of foods grown, technologies used in post harvest handling of the produce and their marketing was also obtained. In order to gather detailed information, the following questions were directed to farmers;
·         What food and cash crops are grown in the area?
·         Have there been any attempts to process any products?
·         If yes; is the project still running and if it collapsed, what led to the collapse?
·         What suitable processed products would be suitable for the community?
·         What are the cultural practices of the area?
·         If products are made is there any possible market for the products?
·         Which water sources are present?
·         What challenges are faced during marketing?
Basing on the information collected, farmers were asked to propose possible products that they were interested in making from which prototypes were made by the student team which were latter approved by the farmers to come up with feasible products.

Business planning and microenterprise management
We made a business plan  before actual business started and it consisted of;                                                                    Business description,  a food processing and marketing group involved in the production of bagiya, composite flour, pea-nut paste and cassava crisps. Its strategy was expanding, creating employment, improving nutritional health hence raising the standards of living of the rural people                                                                                                                                                             Vision; Tulisanyuka- kyangogolo is dedicated to producing and providing high quality products and to ensure that it is the leading producer of ground nut products, cassava, maize and millet products by winning the market share                                                                                                                                                                 Mission statement, The group provides highly nutritious products for improving and maintaining health and people’s standards of living.
objectives of the enterprise; Being the leading producers of the ground nut based products in Uganda by 2012, to expand the market to the neighboring districts like Luwero, Kampala, Masindi, Creating employment for the people specifically the group members, To expand the business to start production of other food products which are not ground nut based by 2010, To support community growth and development through increased food productivity, employment opportunities and skills development.
Keys to success “Tulisanyuka- kyangogolo” we identified several business elements that had to be implemented in order to succeed in this competitive market, Employ strict financial controls; this was especially important for the procurement of raw materials, marketing and distribution points, Produce products of high and consistent quality to meet consumer demands, Continuously carry out product development and improvements, Ensure that we are a learning group which is dynamic, open and accountable, Regularly review the company standing in respect of market

Products description; The group in an effort to generate profits will initially produce bagiya, peanut, composite flour and cassava chips that will be packaged in various sizes in order to target various market segments,The products are to be produced under strict conditions to ensure that the quality of the products is continuously maintained under internationally accepted systems such as HACCP, GMP so as to ensure safety of the product.
Financial consideration; Currently the group has not started actual production, but food science and I.T students have developed prototype products which were approved by save the children officials and also accepted by the group as feasible products. With financing contemplated, the company needed 3.5 million ug sh in order to commence its activities. The purpose of which will be both working and startup capital, the startup capital will be used in procurement of equipments while the working capital will be used to run the initial business activities of the company.
Marketing plan, Marketing objectives; To establish consistent and reliable national market annually at the rate of 10%, To establish a market share of 60% by the end of 2011.
Marketing strategies and tactics; Products would be targeted to potential customers of all classes with the guiding principle of the profit margins. The product is to be sold at whole sale, retail basis like in supermarkets, community shops, schools and gasoline stations. We also intend to penetrate the regional markets after satisfying the domestic market, especially the new market of southern Sudan where the peanut industry is almost non existent and where brand royalty has not yet taken root.Tulisanyuka - kyangogolo would particularly concentrate on routine survey of consumer needs and desires in terms of specific product quality characteristics (such as flavor, color, taste, and consistence), type of packaging and distribution methods..
Pricing analysis; Tulisanyuka-kyangogolo intended to adopt an efficient pricing policy as well as high production efficiency. This policy however will first be constrained by the low production capacity due to market penetrations period however this policy will be continuously pursued as funds accumulate through incomes, and through profits margin acquisition.                                                                                                                                                  Market positioning, We shall position our market as products meant to boost nutrition in Nakasongola town. All the products are associated with the fact that they are nutritious and needed for the good health of the consumer.

Product strategies,The uniqueness of our products is their richness in nutrients, flavor, bracing smoothness and taste, and eye catching packaging. The peanut will be packaged in 300g tamper proof plastic containers, with attractive labels. Composite flour will be packaged in 500g polythene rolls. Cassava crisps and bagiya will also be packaged in polythene bags of varying sizes and attractively labeled.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Competition overview, Our possible competitors are the producers of margarine, producers of jam and other peanut producing companies. Producers of bagiya, Irish potato crisps and various flours

Strength of Competitors, They have an established market (market channels, market share), Large scale production resulting in lower costs of production, Experience in production and marketing of products, Quality of produce.
Business risks, The greatest risks we have in our business today are: Failure to get quality raw materials due to competition, bad debts from customers who fail to pay for the products supplied to them on credit, Breakage of packaged products during distribution or transportation, Failure to carry on production due to disease, injuries to workers and machine failure, Accidents and injuries during production
Mitigation of risks;  we feel we can overcome the above risks by, Holding inventories purchased during periods of peak production, Packaging in cushion boxes to avoid losses that can occur during transportation, Wearing of protective gears during production.
strengths                                                                                weaknesses
  • There’s an abundance of g.nuts, flours and cassava which are the major raw material required by the group

  • Sufficient infrastructure to collect enough raw materials for production.

  • A strong technical and management team that will process the products
  • Substantial amount of marketing is required in order to sensitize the public about the availability of the products.

  • Availability of working space which is spacious and will be well equipped with all the necessary machinery needed.

  • The demand for the ground nut, bagiya, composite flour products currently by far exceeds the supply from the local perspective

  • The production being in done within the centre of the market thus reduced transportation costs

  • All our products are self preserving thus a long shelf life

  • Small capital base of the farmers.

  • The long distance from market


We seek 3,500,000shs (three and a half million shillings) of equity. This will enable to buy a few equipment and provide the startup capital (working capital). We will be able to reach the breakeven point in two years; break even level of production is 2020.2020 units.The working capital will be used to purchase raw materials and packaging material
Microenterprise management
Basing on the information collected  using the needs and opportunity assessment we identified major crops grown in Nabiswera sub-county as maize, groundnuts, millet and cassava together with some minor crops like sweet potatoes, peas, beans, sorghum.
Considering the major crops grown, the  idea of developing a food based micro-enterprise was put into consideration. The major crops were chosen because they were in supply throughout the year, are not perishable and were readily available.  Another advantage was based on the fact that products would be made from the major crops using little water considering that Nakasongola district has limited access to clean water.
Through continous discussions a wide range of possible products were assessed and composite flour was chosen as the most potential product to act as a baseline crop to start a micro-enterprise from which several products were to be introduced later on.
With guidance from the students, the group leaders were chosen based on merit and the group therefore had a chairlady, marketing secretary, treasurer, production managers and a secretary to enable an organized processing system.
Several sites were assessed basing on convenience and safety  to find out  which site would be the best for processing. the sub-county committee recognized the idea of microenterprise development as a source of employment and source of living for  its masses so it provided a site for processing together with a store for raw materials and finished products. The business enterprise was started with a series of training in business planning, raw material handling, record keeping, profit margin calculation. The stundents also took the farmers through aspects of hygiene, sanitation and personal health in order to ensure quality and safety of the overall products.
Prototypes of the composite flour were made while altering ratios of maize flour, cassava flour, millet flour and ground nut flour. The resulting products were subjected to sensory evaluation and the best sample was approved to be the key to the micro-enterprise business.

Before going to the field for actual product processing, the CIT students  did mapping where they moved around each subcounty and came up with a map of each  from which they were able to find the boundaries, market places, health centres, schools both primary and secondary, water sources, transport networks and  distances respective distances from the area of production

Procurement of equipment and raw materials
Raw materials; The cassava flour, maize flour, millet flour and ground nut flour were purchased from Kampala town during the first few weeks of production after which the raw materials were procured from the group members      Equipment and materials; Equipment included, sauce pans, packaging materials, wooden spoons, basins, sieves, weighing scales etc and these were bought from Kampala town. Aprons ,wipers and othe cloth materials were procured from Kampala town Building materials for the kitchen including bricks, nails, sand, poles, cement and iron sheets were bought from Migyera town together with wooden tables and benches.
Labels were designed and printed by Odour Magadalene a computer science student of Makerere University.
Training of farmers
During the first week in the field we trained the farmers in aspects of;                                                                          Hygiene; in order to ensure quality products we told the farmers that quality control doesn’t only apply to product quality but also on personal hygien as arule farmers had to wash their hands before any production so we put in place a water tank for that. Aprons and head gears had to be won before any production process and these were also bought and farmers were always reminded to put them on.liquid soap,dish washers and basins were also put in place and farmers advised clean equipment and work surfaces before and after processing.                                             Processing demonstrations; still in the first week we demonstrated processing of the products from the first steps of production to packaging. We even wrote the steps, quantity of ingredients and directions of use on flip charts in the local language so that everyone would understand and that the farmers would continuously refer to them whenever they did processing.                                                                                                                                     Business plan and record keeping; we went through salient features of the business plan especially the vision, mission, financial projections. Accounting books, calculators and pens were also provided and the farmers taught how to use each. The work plans and schedules of processing including the persons involved were written on flip charts and pinned on waals so that the farmers would know what and when to do any task assigned.
Formulation and production of the composite flour                                                                                                                                                                            Sieving of the raw materials                                                                                                                                           The cassava flour, maize flour, peanut flour and millet flour are sieved to remove weevils, insects and any other foreign matter.                                                                                                                                                              Weighing. Each of the raw materials is weighed separately into a basin in ratios according to the formulation                                                                                                                                    Mixing and packaging. The raw materials are mixed together in a big bucket, sieved again to ensure uniform mixing and then packed in air tight polythen bags in amounts of 500grams per pack, after which each pack is sealed, labels are attached to each pack and stored prior to dispatch
Ingredients for Nutri flour flour

Materials                                                                                                                         amount (g)
Maize flour                                                                                                                            500
Millet flour                                                                                                                           1000
Cassava flour                                                                                                                        500
Ground nut flour                                                                                                                   250
Total                                                                                                                                      2250

Formulation of composite flour

Flours                                        sample 1                         sample 2                          sample 3
Maize                                          25%                               22.22%                             22.22%
Peanut                                         25%                               11.11%                             27.78%
Cassava                                       25%                               22.22%                            27.78%
Millet                                           25%                               44.44%                           22.22%

Product branding
The product was labeled with a brand name, net weight, nutritional information, manufacturers address, ingredients, manufacture and expirely date. The brand name i.e. musanyusa nutri flour was a result of brainstorm from the farmers where numerous group members contributed different names and through democracy  we came to an agreement
Chemical food analysis and microbial analysis
Chemical Food analysis is a broad term which involves determination of the various food components including, proteins, carbohydrates, water, fat, and ash. The results were obtained using the methods Association ofAnalytical Chemists (AOAC 1999).  For good chemical analysis the sample needs to be ground but good enough the composite flour is a powdered food. Sampling was done randomly to ensure accurate results and the samples were properly stored to avoid  any alterations in the chemical composition

4.1      Determination of moisture content of the composite flour

Since water is the primary factor needed by micro-organisms to drive deterioration of foods therefore; the moisture content of  the composite flour was determined  to slow microbial proliferation. The dry matter that remains after moisture removal is referred to as total solids. This analytical value is of great economical importance to a food manufacturer because water is inexpensive filler. Computation of the nutrition value of foods requires that you know the moisture content. Moisture data are used to express results of other analytical determination on a uniform basis (dry weight basis)
The moisture content of the composite flour was determined using a standard air oven method according to AOAC(1999). According to this method glassware were washed very clean and rinsed with distilled water, dried in an electric oven for 30 minutes at 105. After the 30 minutes glassware were removed from the oven and then cooled in a desiccators for 30 minutes after which they were accurately weighed  and records taken. 2g of the flour were weighed into each of the three crucibles and dried in an electric oven overnight at 950c. after the drying was complete the sample was removed from the oven and transferred to to the dessicator maintened at room temperature for 30 minutes. The weights of the moisture dishes and the dry sample are taken.

General formula
%moisture = (weight of sample and crucible)-(weight of dry sample and crucible) × 100
Weight of wet sample

% total solids = weight of dry sample   x100
Weight of wet sample

Table of results
Sample code
Dish code
Weight of dish + sample (gms)
Wt of dish only (gms)
Weight of wet sample (gms)
Wt of dry dish + sample(gms)
Weight of dry sample (gms)
Moisture content(%age)

Therefore average moisture content = (6.356 + 9.024 + 8.887
= 8.089%

4.2   Ash content determination using the dry ashing method

Ash refers to the inorganic residue that remains after ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in food. Ash content represents the total mineral content in foods. Ash determination may be aimed at proximate analysis for nutritional evaluation. Ashing is the first step in the preparation of food samples for specific elemental analysis.
Dry ashing refers to the use of muffle furnace while maintaining a temperature of between 500°c-600°c. Water and volatiles are vapourised and organic substances are burned in the presence of oxygen in air to carbon dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen. Most minerals are converted to oxides, sulphates, phosphates, silicates and chlorides. Elements such as Fe, Pb, and Hg may partially volatilize with this procedure so, other methods must be used if ashing is a preliminary step for specific elemental analysis
Experiment was conducted using the dry ashing method
Apparatus, ceramic crucibles, 1000°c furnace, hot plate, tongs and gloves, weighing scale and food sample
Ø  Ceramic crucibles were cleaned using hydrochloric acid 1:1 solution and then rinsed with distilled water
Ø  The crucibles were then dried in the oven for an hour
Ø  With the use of tongs and gloves the crucibles are quickly transferred to a desiccator , covered and allowed to cool for 30 minutes prior to weighing
Ø  After the 30 minutes the crucibles are then weighed
§  Moderately wet 2g of sample were weighed into each of the 2 tarred crucibles.
§  The crucibles were quickly transferred to a furnace
§  The sample was ignited for 4 hours at 550°c until sample is white or grey with no black sports
§  The muffle was turned off and the muffle oven was opened after cooling to 50°c .
§  Using tongs and a pair of gloves the crucibles with the sample are quickly transferred to a desiccator, covered and allowed to cool for about 30 minutes prior to weighing
The ash %age is calculated as follows
%age ash= weight of crucible +sample after ashing – tare weight of crucible x 100
Original sample weight
Table of results
Dish code
Wt of dish +sample (gms)
Wt of dish only(gms)
Wt of sample(gms)
Wt of dish + ash(gms)
Ash wt (gms)
%age ash

Average ash weight = (2.208 + 2.087)          ;   = 2.148%

4.3    Fat/ oil determination (using the soxtec method according to AOAC 1999)
Setting up the experiment
a)      To each of the two aluminum cups a thimble was inserted and the sample weight was determined directly in the thimble. Care was taken not to spill sample out of the thimble
b)      A thin layer of cotton wool was put over the sample in the thimble and an adaptor inserted on top of the cotton wool.
c)      On the extraction unit, the adjustable knob of each side of the unit was raised  upwards and the thimbles attached (for two samples) in their position tightly
d)      The knobs were then lowered to allow thimbles to lift up and give space for fixing the cups
e)      25mls of petroleum ether were  transferred to each of the cups and a rubber ring placed on each of the cups
f)       Each cup was placed on the hot plates of the extraction unit and the knobs were lowered so as to allow the thimble units get inserted into the petroleum ether in each cup.
g)      Tap water was open to flow through the condensing unit and returns to the sink through the drain
h)      Silicon unit was filled in the service unit to a level just above the bulb
Starting to run the experiment (boiling)
The mains of the service were switched on and the extraction temperature was adjusted to 100°c and the safety knob set to 150°c.
When the condensate  of the solvent is seen rolling down back to the sample through the extraction taps in the open position, the timer is turned in the clockwise direction to the 15 minute mark, so that boiling runs for 15 minutes
At the end of the 15 minutes the timer rings while turning back to the 60 minute mark
At the end of the boiling, thimbles were raised out of the solvent by pressing the upper burtons to the rinse position.The timer was immediately set at 45 minutes and at the end of the rinse time, taps of the extraction unit were closed to stop solvent from condensing through the thimbles. Solvent was left to condense and collect above the taps at the base of the condenser. This process waas left to run until no more solvent is condensing
Drying and evaporation of the solvent
The cups were  placed in the oven set at 105°c and left to dry for 30 minutes, and at the end of the 30 minutes the oven was switched off and left to cool to 40°c without opening
At 40°c the cups were removed, put in the desiccator and left to cool for exactly 30 minutes which after that each cup was weighed
%age fat=w3-w2 x 100
Where; W1= weight of the sample
W2= weight of dry cup
W3=weight of extract + cup
Table of results
Beaker code
Sample wt(gms)
Wt of beaker + oil
Wt of beaker only(gms)
Wt of oil only(gms)
%age oil
Fst 7

%age average oil = 6.19+ 5.73       ; = 5.96%
Tota nitrogen determination of composite flour using the kjeldahl apparatus
    composite flour  is digested in H2SO4, using CuSO4 . 5H20 as catalyst with K2SO4 as boiling point elevator, to release nitrogen from protein and retain nitrogen as ammonium salt.  Concentrated NaOH is added to release NH3, which is distilled, collected in H3BO3 solution, and titrated. The amount of nitrogen obtained is multiplied by the factor 6.25 to arrive to the crude protein content of the nutri flour

Traditional Method
a.       Digestion flasks.  Kjeldahl.  Hard, moderately thick, well annealed glass.  Total capacity is ca 500 or 800 mL.
b.      Distillation flasks.  Same as Kjeldahl flask as in (a), fitted with rubber stopper through which passes lower end of efficient connecting bulb or trap to prevent mechanical carryover of NaOH during distillation.  Connect upper end of bulb to condenser tube with rubber tubing.  Use graduated 500 mL Erlenmeyer titration flask to collect distillate.  Trap outlet of condenser in manner to ensure complete absorption of NH3 distilled into boric acid solution.
c.       Digestion/distillation system.  Traditional apparatus with adjustable controls for individual flasks.
d.      Titration buret.  50 mL.  Class A or equivalent.
a.       Sulfuric acid.  95-98% H2SO4.  Nitrogen free.
b.      Copper catalyst solution.  CuSO4 . 5H2O. Nitrogen free.
c.       Potassium sulfate.  K2SO4. Nitrogen free.
d.      Sodium hydroxide solution.  40% w/w nitrate-free NaOH.
e.       Boric acid solution.  2%, with indicator.  20 g of H3BO3 were dissolved and diluted to 1 L in water
f.       Hydrochloric acid standard solution.  0.2N.  Prepared as in Association of Official Analytical Chemists method number 936.15
g.       indicator
Sample Preparation
     15 g of K2SO4, 1 mL CuSO4 . 5H2O catalyst solution  were added  to each of the two digestion flasks. 0.533g and 0.589 of composite flour were weighed and immediately placed  in the digestion flask.  5 mL of  H2SO4 were added rinsing any powderof composite flour on neck of flask down into bulb.a catalyst was also added.  A blank  with no sample but with all the rest of the reagents was prepared

a.       Digestion. The flasks were placed  on heaters and heated gently at first to avoid getting charred material up the neck of the flasks. The samples were digested until white fumes appeared  in flask, then increased burner settings until digest was clear and free of undigested material. When it had gone clear the digest was heated for further 20minutes.At the end of digestion the acid digest was cooled to room temperature and distilled water was slowly added with swirling to mix. The mixture was left to cool again and then quantitatively transferred to a 50ml volumetric flask and made to volume.
b.      Distillation.
blank. To 10ml of distilled water in the cup a drop of phenolphthalein was added.10ml  of  2% boric acid was added into the small cornical flask plus two drops of methyl red indicator. The burner was placed under the system can. The boric acid flask was placed under the condenser and made sure that the the liquid covered the condenser tip. When the steam was seen coming through, the water was let in. alittle 40% sodium hydroxide was added down sidewall of Kjeldahl flask with no agitation.  NaOH forms clear layer under the diluted digest.  The flask was immediately connected to the distillation bulb on condenser and vigorously swirled flask to mix contents thoroughly; heated until all NH3 has been distilled. receiving flask was lowered and the liquid was let to drain from condenser tip. distillation heater was turned off. H3BO3 receiving solution was titrated with standard 0.04M HCL solution to first trace of pink.
The same procedure was followed for the sample and results recorded
Calculate results as follows:
V × M
Nitrogen, %=              1000                     × 100

Where; v is the titre value, M is the molarity of HCl and  wto is the initial sample weight
Percentage nitrogen × 6.25 = %age crude protein
Table of results
Sample code Tube code Sample weight (gms) Initial burette reading Final burette reading Volume used
9a H 0.533 16.00 14.60 1.40
9b 27b 0.589 15.70 13.80 1.90
Therefore for sample 9a, %age nitrogen =             1.4 × 0.04 × 14
1000                                ×     100         = 0.147%
%age protein in sample 9a was  0.147 × 6.25 = 0.919%

Percentage nitrogen in 27b =                1.9 × 0.04 ×14
1000                       ×   100      = 0.181%

%age nitrogen in sample 27b was 0.181 × 6.25 = 1.131
Average crude protein of composite flour = 1.131 + 0.914       ;   1.025%

1 Digestion Apparatus: A multi-unit assembly with rheostat- controlled
electric heaters, and condensers to fit 600 mL beakers, designed specifically
for crude fiber determinations, is recommended. Heaters must be
adjustable to the temperature that will bring 200 mL of water at 25 °C to a
rolling boil in 15 ± 2 minutes (Note 1).
2. Filtering Device: A California Modified Buchner Funnel, two-piece
polyethylene, with a 200 mesh stainless steel screen, is recommended.
3. Muffle Furnace: Equipped with a pyrometer and capable of operating at
temperatures up to 600 °C
4. Drying Oven: Forced draft or convection air oven, operating at 130 ± 2 °C
1. Sodium Hydroxide Solution, 0.312 N (1.25%): Prepare and standardize
against potassium acid phthalate using phenophthalein indicator.
2. Sulfuric Acid Solution, 0.255 N (1.25%): Prepare and standardize against a
standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein indicator

). Place beaker on digestion apparatus with pre adjusted heater and boil exactly 30 minutes, rotating beaker periodically to keep solids from adhering to sides.
Remove beaker and filter contents through California Buchner funnel precoated with about 0.75 g of ceramic fiber - dry weight; rinse beaker with 50-75 mL of boiling water, and wash through funnel. Repeat with three 50 mL portions of water, and suck dry. Return fiber mat with residue to beaker by blowing back through funnel. Add 200 mL of boiling 1.25% sodium hydroxide solution, return to heater and boil exactly 30 minutes. Removevbeaker and filter as before. Wash with 25 mL of boiling 1.25% sulfuric acid solution, three 50 mL portions of water, and 25 mL of alcohol. Remove mat and residue, and transfer to ashing dish. Dry fiber mat and residue at 130 ± 2 °C for 2 hours. Cool in a desiccator (Note 7)
and weigh. Ignite at 600 ± 15 °C to constant weight (30 minutes usually
sufficient). Cool in desiccator and weigh.
Run a blank determination on the prepared ceramic fiber using the same quantity of fiber and the same amounts of acid and alkali as in the determination (Note 8).
% Crude Fiber (dry basis) =
Sample Wt. (g) × Sample Moisture, %)
(Dry Residue Wt. (g) Ignited Residue Wt. (g) Blank Wt. Loss (g)) ×100 ×100

Study area
The project was carried out in Nakasongola district Nabiswera Sub County because save the children realized the need to improve the livelihoods of the people in that region. The actual aim was to improve the lives of the children but the only way of doing so easily was to improve the lives of their parents by adding value to their crop produce hence fetching them more profits than before. Through the project the children are now able to go school. The health status of the children and people at large has improved since with the money they get from the project helps them handle their medical bills. Food security has improved since their food crops are now stored in more stable processed forms and because now even in times of scarcity they have money to buy other foods. At the beginning of the project men didn’t participate in any of the business activities and only used to send their wives but recently the chair person informed us that men had started attending production sessions and we think this is because they realized the profitability of the project.

Student team formation, training and initial field visits
The student team comprised of food science and computer science and technology students; majorly because each group of students had expertise in it’s the respective field. The food science students were to handle all aspects concerning processing including, product development, sensory evaluation, business plan writing, and actual product formulation whereas the CIT students were to handle all computer related processes including, label designing printing and mapping. Selection of students to make up each group was random to ensure uniform co-operation to bring together knowledge from different sources. From the training we leant that there are different ways one can use to achieve a desired goal. Since we the food science students had never known the computer science students the task was how to get used to each other and at the same time keep the project going, but this wasn’t a hustle since we were from the same the same institution
From the initial field visits we were able to find out that Nakasongola district is dry due to uncontrolled deforestation in a verge to burn charcoal, and also due to over grazing. Both activities have led to the low rainfall in the district amounting to only 500-1000mm per annum. This rainfall is inadequate to support agriculture for subsistence and commercial purposes. During this first visit we interacted with the farmers at Zion guest house in Nakasongola town here we got to know each other’s names and slight information about the farmer groups and crops grown.
Needs and opportunity assessment
During the second visit we interacted with farmers at Nabiswera sub-county offices and we were  able to find out that the farmers were not green about what was going on. At first we thought that the farmers would expect much more than what we had planned for them, but when we interacted with the farmers we found out that only few farmers were out of line of what we had for them. For instance some farmers had a view that we were going to give them real money in cash to enable them start their own businesses while others were expecting much more expensive machinery like millers but we were able to steer all group members to the same direction. We also found out that the group was already organized according to the hierarchy of leadership at local levels including the chair person, marketing manager, finance manager secretary and so on.  We also realized that farmers had done some processing of  several products  and had some knowledge so it were the farmers who contributed as in to what products we should make to start the business.
The farmers realized the post harvest losses involved in their agricultural production, the low prices offered for their minimally processed products. Here each farmer confirmed the crops he had in plenty with a potential for value addition. The farmers then proposed what kind of products they wanted to be made from the crops from where we reached a consensus and zeroed down to composite flour, cassava chips, peanut butter, and bhaghia though our project is limited to composite flour.  The farmers also explained to us the products they had tried to make before including jams, bread, cookies, pan cakes,  etc but failed due to lack of enough knowledge in preservation, marketing  and processing. we also realized that the group was dominated by women  and  we concluded that it was  partly because men in Nakasongola were late adopters and wanted to get fast cash. The sub-county chief realized the potential of the project and he offered the community a place for processing and a store. The farmers agreed upon the most appropriate time for processing being in the afternoon after they had done their gardening.  A mixed product enterprise was developed constituting of cassava chips, composite flour, bhaghia, and peanut butter. The micro enterprise is in operation to date and 25th February 2010 more capital was given to the group by His excellence the president of Uganda.
The farmers leant how to process, market and balance books with the aim of making profits. On 19th February 2010 when the project ended the staff of save the children confirmed to us that the lives of the people had changed significantly.
Here we leant how to practically apply the theoretical lessons offered in our course, learnt public speaking, we also realized how the actual field after school might be.

Group management and organization

The group has 30 members with designated roles all of whom have knowledge and experience in farming. Anyone who is willing to pay an initial capital of 10000(ten thousand Ugandan shillings) is free to join. The initial payment is aimed at generating more capital and also to encourage participation for each person will have a mind that the business belongs to him. Further the group is divided into sub groups which operate at different days, and with this everybody is able to have hands on. Each product is produced on a specified day and by different farmers (production sub groups alternate).

The organizational structure is as follows;

Mrs.B .Najjemba  bbbbbbbbetty         

General secretary;
Nansamba justice
Marketing manager;
Namukwaya betty
Ethics and integrity;
Mrs. Nabayego Faith
Finance manager;
Gardens inspectors;
Nakibuuka Veronica and Kyalimpa Enoch

   General members

Flow structure showing the organization of Tulisanyuka-kyangogolo marketing stage

Business plan
According to the business description, the group had to process four products i.e. bhaghia, composite flour, peanut paste and cassava crisps. Cassava risps were only produced for the first month and latter dropped because besides cassava latter on was nolonger grown by the farmers due to the fear of cassava mosaic and also because the cost of production was so high. The market for the crisps was also small and yet production was so tedious. The composite flour, peanut paste and bhagia are currently produced and locally go by the names of musanyusa, kawomere and Tulisanyuka respectively.
The group has achieved its vision of producing quality products only that it is not the leading producer of  the peanut butter in the area I think because of the relatively higher price associated with the quality. Composite flour leads in the district because they are the only producers. Bhaghia fetches more money for them because its more liked by school going children and because most people can afford the 100 shillings that is attached to each pack.
Pricing; each 500gram pack of composite flour first went for 1000nshiling fetching a profit of 400 per pack but we were faced a problem that the customers compared its price to the local millet flour and found it cheaper to buy the local flour. We then had to adjust our price to 800 per pack fetching a profit of 200 per pack. The bhaghia goes for 100 shilings per pack and the peanut paste goes for 2500 shillings.

The products are sold in nabisweara town, Migyera town and Nakasongola town . a lot of selling is also done in the seasonal markets that pull a lot of customers to Migyera town. The group also hired a sales person who sells the distributes the products to various retailers is paid every time he takes the products.

Competitive factors
Competition is faced in the peanut paste and bhaghia but still Tulisanyuka beats the competitors because of quality. The group doesn’t face any competition in Nutri- flour because they are the only producers of the flour in the district. Competition is also limited because othe producers of peanut and bhagia are in Luweero town and by the time they think about supplying their products in Nakasongola we have done that.

Financial considerations

Challenges in procurement of equipment and raw materials
Ø  To provide market for the farmers produce, we at first expected to purchase the food crops from the farmers themselves. A week before we left for actual production we contacted the farmers and we found out that they did have good harvest that season so we had to purchase the raw materials from Kampala within that short time.
Ø  Due to limited time we had problems in locating quality raw materials and equipment. For example, the flour we bought in owino market had stones and other extraneous matter hence not suitable for production.
Ø  Nabiswera subcounty and Nakasongola district at large has scarce water resources. Portable water can only be obtained from boreholes which were put in place by the district local government but due to the low water level in the district, obtaining the water was hard. A jerrycan of bore hole water was at 800 uganda shillings hence raising the cost of production. The other water resources include the man made ponds which provide non portable water unfit for production.
Ø  Since we couldn’t buy all the equipment in Kampala, the prices for equipment that were purchased in Nakasongola were hiked to more than twice the usual amount because the natives of Nakasongola associated us with having a lot of money.

Formulation and production of the Nutri flour
From the four formulations described in the formulation in the methodology, through sensory evaluation by some of our colleagues during prototype development, the sample with 22.22% maize flour, 22.22% cassava flour, 11.11% ground nut flour and 44.44% millet flour was chosen. This was that was used as the major group product besides bhagia, peanut butter and cassava crisps.  The product was brande as Nutri flour and locally as ‘musanyusa’. Musanyusa depicted that once  some one drunk the porridge he would become happy throught his life.

Since we were not so sure of the market we started by producing oly 50 units of the Nutri flour. But we sold them within 2 days. We made more and the sales were increasing but after some time there was a decline and we had to do product awareness for about two weeks after this time the sales are alternating decreasing and increasing according to the season. Most sales are made during the dry season and the highest market is the parents who buy the flour for their young children.

The Nutri flour was sold firstly to the group members, then to retail shops in Nabiswera, Migyera, Nakasongola and in seasonal markets throught Nakasongola. Products were also sold at the exhibition at Makerere University freedom square and another exhibition at the department of food science and technology that took place from 29th August to 2nd September which was closed by the president of Uganda.

Challenges faced during formulation, production and marketing

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