Saturday, 10 September 2011

Pineapple Wine making as a Business

Fruit Wine Making; Focus on Pineapple Wine making as a Business
Pineapple Growing In Uganda

In Uganda, pineapples are mainly grown on small scale in Kayunga and Luwero districts. Pineapples in Uganda are generally grown as a sole crop or an intercrop with bananas. Ugandan pineapples have a competitive advantage that they are harvested twice in a year compared to other parts of the world. During harvesting season(peak harvest), farmers in these districts sell off some pineapples as fresh fruits, other  are solar dried  and sold off as solar dried pineapples in supermarkets( but the capacity of their solar driers is limited by both changes in weather conditions and also the economics of its construction) and  the rest is left rotting in the garden.    Leaving pineapples to rot in garden is the main point behind sharing this information about pineapple wine making that can save value lost in leaving our pineapples to rot in garden and increase the farmers’ income.  Home making of pineapple wine is a simple process requiring simple equipments and inputs yet adding a lot of value to the pineapples (wine selling yields more money than selling raw pineapples) and can just be done as a hobby.
Enology; is the term that is used to describe the science of winemaking. The oldest known enological operation is estimated to be about 8,000 years old, and was discovered in Georgia.
Wine; Wine can be defined as a beverage made of the fermented juice of any of various kinds of plants e.g. fruits (like grapes, pineapples, passion fruits and mangoes); vegetables (like tomatoes and carrots), usually containing from 10 to 15 percent alcohol by volume.
Vinification (Wine Making) is the production of wine, starting with selection of fruits or other produce like vegetables fruits and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may also be made from other fruit or non-toxic plant material.
            The Wine Fermentation Process Summarized Using a Reaction Equation:        
C6HO6   yeast         2C2H5OH + 2CO2
         Glucose (sugar)                 Ethanol + Carbon dioxide
 Yeast is added to a solution containing sugar, and the yeast cells convert the simple sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide.  The alcoholic solution that results from fermentation contains about 12-15% ethanol, as yeast cells cannot survive in higher concentrations of ethanol. 
High sugar content is necessary for fermentation to proceed in a desirable manner. Because of this, the pineapple juice is sweetened further with cane sugar to increase its brix.
The Fruits (Pineapples)
The quality of the Pineapples determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Pineapple quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, and pruning method.
Ripe pineapples, oranges /passion fruits/lemons, sugar/food color, water, citric acid, DCL wine.
Equipment and materials:
Table, firewood/charcoal,  one 20L  jerry can, bucket, two saucepans, air rocker, net,  jag, sieve, funnel, knife.
Step 1:
Wash ripe pineapples with a scrubbing brush and place them in a clean sauce pan. Wash the oranges and put them on a clean table, oranges/passion fruit/ lemon are used so as to add flavor to the wine. If using passion fruits instead of oranges or lemons, extract passion fruit juice.
Step 2:
Have the pineapples peeled separate the peelings from the peeled pineapples. Put the pineapple peelings in a sauce pan together with sliced oranges/lemon add adequate water then make fire and have them boiled.

Step 3:
Pulp the tiny sliced peeled pineapples using a pulping machine and squeeze this pulp using clean hands to get juice.

Step 4:
After squeezing, sieve the pineapple juice using a clean bucket. To maximize the juice out of the pineapple you can get the pineapple residues put them in a net with very small holes to completely squeeze out the juice. The residues should be added to the boiling mixture of pineapple peelings and oranges in step 2 above.

Step 5: (Assuming that you’re making 20 liter of wine)
Mix pineapple juice and sugar in a ratio of 5:4 (i.e. 5 cups of pineapple juice to 4 cups of sugar) in a bucket and stir until the sugar is dissolved. Make a sugar caramel by frying two cups of sugar in a saucepan until the sugar turns brown and then add it to the mixture in the bucket. The added caramel adds color to wine (it gives it a red color). Food color can also be used to color the wine.  Now the sweeten pineapple juice is put into a 20 litre jerry can. If a white wine is desirable, don’t add the caramel. Just add the ten cups of sugar directly un-fried.  

Step 6:
Get the water from the mixture of boiled pineapple peelings and oranges in step 2 above and add it also to the 20 litre jerry can where the mixture of pineapple juice with sugar was put. The jerry can should not be filled to the brim. Cover the jerry can tightly to avoid any air in. Place the jerry can in a basin of cold water.
Step 7:
Add one (1) flat tea spoon of citric acid and dcl wine in the jerry can. Citric acid maintains the longevity of the pineapple wine while dcl wine speeds up the maturity of the wine.
Step 8:
Get a small tube that can allow air to pass through; get a 5 litre jerry can and cut it into half from the top; put a small hole on the jerry can top cover which can enable the tube go through; power a cup of cold water in the cut jerry can; then place the tube to run from the jerry can top cover into the water in the cut jerry can. This assists in maintaining the wine at low temperatures. Make sure that the tube is tightly fixed in the jerry can top cover to avoid the wine scent from evaporating
Step 9:
Keep the jerry can in a cool place and not directly on the floor. It can be placed on wood pallet.
Step 10:
After one month, sieve it and pour it in another jerry can, it should not be sieved from a basin because it will evaporate. Use a funnel and a sieve to start the process. Again add the same amounts (1 flat tea spoon) of citric acid and dcl wine as did at the beginning.
After two months pineapple wine can be consumed however it’s sweeter when taken after three months and more.

Preservatives Commonly Used In Winemaking
Sulfur dioxide; this is achieved by adding potassium or sodium metabisulphite. Sulfur dioxide has two main functions; (i) Has an anti microbial agent, and (ii) Has an anti oxidant.  In white wine making, metabisuphite can be added prior to fermentation and immediately after the completion of alcoholic fermentation.  When metabisuphite is added after alcoholic fermentation, it will have the effect of stopping malolactic, bacterial spoilage and help protect against the damaging effects of oxygen. Additions of up to 100 mg per liter (of sulfur dioxide) are sufficient, but the available or free sulfur dioxide should be about 30 mg per liter. Available sulfur dioxide should be maintained at this level until bottling.
In red wines, sulfur dioxide may be used at high levels (100 mg per liter) prior to fermention to assist stabilize color otherwise it is used at the end of malolactic ferment and performs the same functions as in white wine. However, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) should be used to avoid bleaching red pigments and the maintenance level should be about 20 mg per liter. Furthermore, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) may be made to red wine after alcoholic ferment and before malolactic ferment to overcome minor oxidation and prevent the growth of acetic acid bacteria.
Without the use of sulfur dioxide, wines can readily suffer bacterial spoilage no matter how hygienic the winemaking practice.
Potassium Sorbate
Potassium sorbate is effective for the control of fungal growth, including yeast, especially for sweet wines in bottles. However, one potential hazard is the metabolism of sorbate to geraniol a potent and very unpleasant by-product. To avoid this, either the wine must be sterile bottled or contain enough sulfur dioxide to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Sterile bottling includes the use of filtration.
Commonly Used Definitions In Wine Making.
Acid Blend A mixture of tartaric, malic and citric acids, acid blend is patterned after the combination of acids that occur naturally in fruits and is a convenient way to increase acidity while maintaining fruit character. Although the combination varies by provider, acid blend tends to be either 50-25-25 or 40-40-20 tartaric-malic-citric. Due to its malic acid component, acid blend typically should not be added to a wine after malolactic fermentation is complete.
Bentonite An aluminum-silicate clay originally found around Fort Benton, Wyoming, Bentonite is commonly used to fine white wines and, to a lesser degree, red wines. The negative charge associated with Bentonite attracts a variety of suspended solids in wine causing them to precipitate which typically results in a more clear and stable wine with reduced off odors and flavors. Prior to addition, Bentonite should be hydrated with a small amount of warm water. The wine should be racked off the finings within two weeks of addition.
Brix A measurement of sugar in water-based solutions such as pineapple juice. One degree BRIX is equal to one percent sugar in the solution. Sugar content in juice is typically measured by a hydrometer or refractometer. The BRIX and Balling scales are essentially the same.
Calcium Carbonate The main component in chalk, food grade calcium carbonate can be used to decrease acid (primarily tartaric acid) in wines. Due to the undesirable flavor calcium carbonate imparts to wine in large amounts, it typically should not be used to decrease acidity by more than four tenths of a percent (4g/ml). Many winemakers prefer blending a high acid wine with a lower acid wine to decrease acidity rather than resort to the addition of chalk.   
Campden Tablets Consisting of either Potassium Metabisulfite or Sodium Metabisulfite, Campden tablets are a convenient way to accurately measure sulfite additions to wine. The tablets should, however, be crushed before they are added making them often less convenient than sulfites in powdered form.
Citric Acid The small amount of citric acid that occurs naturally in fruits is metabolized by yeasts during fermentation leaving little in finished wine. Citric acid is sometimes added to wines to reduce iron haze (an increasingly uncommon problem with modern winemaking equipment) or to impart a crisp, albeit artificial, flavor to white wines.
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) commonly used as a fertilizer; Diammonium Phosphate provides nitrogen that promotes yeast growth and aids in a more complete and trouble-free fermentation. Diammonium Phosphate is the main ingredient in most commercial yeast nutrient preparations.
Egg Whites Consisting of approximately twelve percent albumin and globulin, egg whites are a relatively gentle protein-based fining agent. Like gelatin, albumin and globulin attract suspended solids in wine including tannins. Egg whites are not suitable for fining white wines. Prior to addition, a pinch of salt and a small amount of water should be added to the egg whites which should then be whisked but not to the point of foaming.  The wine should be racked off the finings within two weeks of addition.
Free Sulfites A naturally occurring substance in fruits, sulfites (sulfur dioxide, SO2) act as an anti-oxidant as well as an anti-bacterial and therefore reduce the risk of wine spoilage. Free sulfites refer to those sulfites that are not molecularly bound to other materials and therefore available to bind to oxygen and bacteria should they be introduced to the wine. In high dosages, sulfites have the taste and odor of burnt matches, in low doses, they are essentially undetectable. Approximately one in 10,000 people are allergic to sulfites.
Gelatin Powder A protein derived from the collagen found in the connective tissue of animals, gelatin powder is commonly used to fine red wines and, to a lesser degree, white wines. The positive charge associated with gelatin attracts suspended solids in wines including tannin and as such reduces astringency and bitterness. Prior to addition, gelatin  should be hydrated with hot or boiling water. The wine should be racked off the finings within two weeks of addition. Gelatin is considered the most effective of protein-based fining agents; over addition will reduce the flavor and color of the wine to a noticeable degree.
Grams per Milliliter A unit of measure for the amount of acid (grams) in a quantity of wine, juice or must (milliliters) that is typically abbreviated g/ml. Grams per milliliters corresponds directly to tenths of a percent such that as an example, 7 g/ml is equal to 7 tenths of a percent or 0.007.
Malic Acid Along with tartaric acid, malic acid is one of the two principal acids that occur naturally in some fruits. Malic acid is found in a number of fruits like bananas, grapes and provides wines with a provides a tart, fruity flavor. Malolactic acid converts malic acid to equal parts of lactic acid plus carbon dioxide. Malolactic fermentation therefore both reduces total amount of acid in a wine and changes the crisp malic taste to a more "buttery" lactic taste.
Milligrams per Liter A unit of measure for the amount of free sulfites (milligrams) in a quantity of wine, juice or must (liters) that is typically abbreviated mg/L. Milligrams per liter corresponds directly to parts per million (ppm) such that as an example 50 mg/L is equal to 50 ppm.
Must The mixture of unfermented juice and crushed fruits that results from crushing, and typically destemming, fresh fruits. For red wines, one typically ferments the must and then presses out the new wine. For white wines, one typically presses the must and then ferments only the juice.
Potassium Metabisulphite A white-yellow powder, Potassium Metabisulphite (K2S2O5) is a common means of adding sulfite to wine. Potassium Metabisulfite is 57% sulfur dioxide which, when not bound to other substances in wine, acts as a preservative. In high dosages, sulfites have the taste and odor of burnt matches, in low doses, they are essentially undetectable. Approximately one in 10,000 people are allergic to sulfites.  
Sodium Metabisulphite A white-yellow powder, Sodium Metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) is a decreasingly common means of adding sulfite to wine. Sodium Metabisulfite is 57% sulfur dioxide which, when not bound to other substances in wine, acts as a preservative. Unlike Potassium Metabisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite can add off-flavors to wine and is currently banned in the United States for use in commercial wines due to health concerns surrounding sodium. In high dosages, sulfites have the taste and odor of burnt matches, in low doses, they are essentially undetectable. Approximately one in 10,000 people are allergic to sulfites.  
Tartaric Acid Along with malic acid, tartaric acid is one of the two principal acids that occur naturally in fruits like Bananas, and grapes. Tartaric acid helps to provide wine with its distinctive taste. Because tartaric acid is not affected by malolactic bacteria, it may be added after malolactic fermentation to increase acidity without concern for restarting this secondary fermentation. It is therefore commonly added to red wines to adjust acidity before bottling.
Titratable Acid The amount of acid in the juice, must or wine as measured by the process of titration. Wine titration kits determine the amount of acid through the addition of a reagent of a known concentration until a color change in the solution occurs. The quantity of reagent required to effect the color change determines the quantity of acid in the sample.
Yeast Hulls The remnants of expired yeasts, yeast hulls or yeast ghosts provide live yeasts with nutrients that promote a more complete and trouble-free fermentation. Yeast hulls are an ingredient in most commercial yeast nutrient preparations.